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Ultraviolet (UV) light consists of electromagnetic waves with frequencies higher than those we identify as the color violet. These frequencies are invisible to humans because the wavelength is shorter than that of visible light, but longer than X-rays. People who visit the beach quickly learn what UV light can do even though they can't see it. The sunburn pain they feel later that night is clearly far in excess of what could be caused by just the sun's heat.

Objects left in the sun, on the other hand, take a far greater UV pounding than people. After all, a sculpture, or a door, or a fence, or a bench can be out there in a UV bombardment day in, day out for years. UV damage starts with discolora-tion, then comes fading and cracking, and as time goes on the process can ultimately leads to total product disintegra-tion. Naturally the rate of decline will ramp up with an Increase in exposure time or sunlight intensity.

This is because the UV photon has the power to alter chemical bonds in molecules, even without having enough en-ergy to ionize atoms. UV absorption also leads to chain degradation and loss of strength at sensitive points in the chain structure. These include tertiary carbon, which in polypropylene occurs in every repeat unit. For example, the patinas used by sculptors to give an artistic finish to bronze or other metals will quickly breakdown if not protected. Likewise the polymers used in consumer products are soon degraded by UV light.

To protect and stabilize these surfaces from UV. plant managers, maintenance professionals museum curators are advised to coat substrates with Permalac. This product contains the most effective UV inhibitors found in any specialty coating.


Of particular value for assessing potential damage due to high wind carrying sea spray is the frequency of direct and oblique onshore winds. These are considered separately for day and night and divided into the calm, weak and moder-ate speed categories for each of the 16 compass directions. Evaluating the protective function of a coating like Permalac must first start with an assessment of the magnitude of the local threat and the direction from which it arrives.

Of course much of salt spray is not measurable and only makes it's destructive effects known when the surface of delicate substrates begins to erode or deteriorate. Take for example the heavily salted streets in northern cities after a snow storm. Once the snow turns to slush it can easily be thrown in slop waves by bus and truck tires onto buildings on the far side of the sidewalk.

Should the special patina siding of those buildings be protected with Perrnalac Clearcoat Lacquer they can take a number of years of this salt spray assault without showing any damage to the siding whatsoever. Eventually recoat-ing will be indicated and at that point existing Permalac can easily be removed with acetone although in many cases the new Permalac can be applied directly over the old.


It has often been observed that the particulate in sand storms comes in a wide variety of sizes. The coarsest are al-ways at an elevation near the earth's surface, usually in a definite sheet or layer that ends abniptly 1 or 2 feet above the earth's surface. Only material of dust size is carried to greater heights.

When an abundance of dry sand and dust is available, the wind turns it into a corrosive and'or destructive agent, especially in desert or dry regions. The abrasive effect on buildings, equipment and materials is easily observed.

Strong evidence of the cutting action of the wind is seen in a variety of different situations. It can strip the chrome plating off an automobile bumper in a single trip through the Death Valley Desert in CA, or take the satin finish off a stainless steel corporate sign on Peugeot Sound near Seattle in a period of months. Wood is even more susceptible to the ravages of wind borne sand. Telephone poles can become so sand-blasted they fall over, and in a surprisingly short period of time.

When sand blows on glass: say automobile windshields, glass quickly loses transparency, first becoming pitted, then frosted. It's a problem that can reach disaster proportions for Insurance companies if they write policies in which coverage pays claims for wind caused damage.

Permalac protection has proven it can help resist wind borne sand on a wide range of different substrates. Sculp-tors, for example, have found that coating their bronze statues can keep blowing sand from abrading patina surfaces for sustained periods of time; sometimes years.


Heat Waves
Abnormally high temperatures constitute heat waves. Because of the temperature variation at different geographic locations there is no universal definition of a heat wave. As to the effect heat can have on protective finishes one must take Into account the high levels of humidity often accompanying a heat wave. Together these two charactenstics can increase the relative temperature known as the teat index" to dangerous levels.

Product Specifications for Permalac require application take place only when the temperature is over 50° F. and the humidity is under 85%. Once cured, Permalac integrity will remain in tact up to temperatures of 250°F.

Because heat waves are not visible like other severe weather such as hurricanes. tornadoes, and thunderstorms, their causal relation to specific destruction is not as clearly defined. However, dned soils no longer capable of producing a crop are more susceptible to dust storms raising the kind of wind borne sand destruction discussed in the previous sec-tion. Hat waves can also Increase outbreaks of wildfires because dry vegetation is a lot more susceptible to spontane-ous ignition. Finally, the so-called urban heat island in crowded cities can Increase temperatures even more, particularly overnight.

Cold Waves
As defined by the U.S. National Weather Service, a cold wave is a rapid fall in temperature within a 24 hour period. Should increased protection for agriculture. industry, and commerce not be available. serious economic loss and de-struction can result. The precise criterion for a cold wave is determined by the rate at which the temperature falls, and the temperature it reaches at its nadir Theoretically cold waves can occur in virtually any geological location. That's because they result from the accumulation of large cool air masses caused by movements of air streams which can take place anywhere.

So long as Permalac has been applied and permitted to cure (aprox. 1 hour) at temperatures above 50° F. users should experience no loss of Permalac effectiveness no matter how cold it gets.

One extreme was the so-called Year without summer in 1 81 6 when numerous crops failed during freakish summer cold snaps after volcanic eruptions distorted incoming sunlight. Over the last few decades global warming and other climate-related disasters reported reflect mainly monetized direct damages to assets, and are unequally distributed. When loss estimates try to factor in loss of human lives and cultural heritage they are difficult to monetize, and comparisons can become meaningless.